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Spaying and neutering in dogs: differences, advantages and disadvantages

Esterilización y castración en perros: diferencias, ventajas e inconvenientes

Lobo Azul |

As is known, having a companion dog requires great responsibility. In addition to bathing and feeding care, aspects such as the pet's health and the prevention of potential diseases are essential if we want to extend our dog's life expectancy. Among the numerous techniques that exist to prevent the appearance of certain diseases or infections, some of the best known are castration and sterilization . These terms, although popular, are still confusing to some people. Some for not clearly differentiating sterilization and castration, and others for thinking that they are exactly the same procedures. But in reality, how are sterilization and castration different? What are the advantages of these procedures? And, above all, do they have drawbacks? It is important to dispel all doubts before choosing whether to spay or neuter your dog. That is why, on this occasion, we will briefly develop each of these aspects to learn more about the differences, advantages and disadvantages of sterilization and castration in dogs .

Spay and neuter: what are they?

As we have already mentioned, although they are associated because they are surgical procedures and performed only by a veterinarian , sterilization and castration are techniques perfectly differentiated from each other. For this reason, it is necessary to define them individually.
dog castration


Sterilization consists of a surgical technique by which the pet's reproduction process is interrupted by cutting the reproductive ducts. This procedure can be performed on both male and female dogs. In the case of males , it is done by cutting the seminiferous ducts, that is, the connections between the testicles and the dog's penis. Now, in females , the sterilization process is carried out by cutting the dog's fallopian tubes, known medically as the oviducts.


Castration is also a surgical procedure, but of greater scope. In it, the genitals of both the male and the females are removed. For this reason, castration is considered to be more complex than sterilization. This technique, in male dogs, is performed by irreversibly removing their testicles, leaving only the scrotal sac. While, in females, the procedure can be in two ways:


Castration in which only the female's ovaries are removed.


It consists of removing the animal's uterus and ovaries.
dog sterilization


Once the definition of castration and sterilization on an individual basis is clear, let's see the advantages of these surgical processes. In this way we can better understand the veterinarian's explanations when recommending any of them.

Advantages of sterilization

Whether applied to a male or a female, this process has great advantages for our canine friend:
  • First of all, it is a less invasive surgery .
  • Sterilization allows for a faster recovery . For the male, no more than three days, while the female would have recovered in a week.
  • In the case of males, it reduces the risk of suffering from diseases associated with the prostate.
  • In the case of females, it reduces the risk of mammary tumors , uterine and ovarian diseases.
  • It prevents dogs from reproducing, as it inhibits their fertility.
  • The sexual behavior of canines is not altered by this surgery.
Spaying and neutering advantages

Advantages of castration

Although it is a more complicated technique, castration also has numerous advantages for the canine and its owner:
  • Completely eliminates the animal's sexual desire. Due to the removal of the genitals, hormonal changes are highly diminished, leaving aside heat.
  • The transformation of sexual behavior prevents dogs from wanting to wander the streets at risk of getting lost or hurt.
  • Reduces the risk of diseases associated with reproduction and the prostate.
  • In the case of the dog, when the production of testosterone is inhibited, a passivity occurs in the character, which makes it easier to train it.
  • Socialization with other canines becomes easier.
  • Controlling aggression becomes a simpler process in the case of males.


Although it has been mentioned that sterilization and castration are highly effective and beneficial processes for the health of dogs , it is also undeniable that they have some disadvantages, or risks, as they are surgical techniques. Next, we will see some of them:

Disadvantages of sterilization

In the case of sterilization, the advantages are usually diverse, the most notable of these is that the production of hormones is not eliminated, on the contrary, it remains intact in the animals. This can be a disadvantage for some since, if it is an aggressive animal, its behavior will not change with sterilization. Another important disadvantage to mention in the case of female dogs is that they continue to be in heat and, therefore, attracting males during this period.
differences Spay and castration

Disadvantages of castration

The risk of adverse effects from anesthesia is usually one of the biggest disadvantages of castration. Accompanied by the alteration in the weight of the animal that, in many cases, suffer from overweight, which must be controlled frequently to avoid it. Finally, among the drawbacks of this process, it is noted that recovery after surgery is much slower, it can take two weeks, or more if necessary. As has been shown, both sterilization and castration usually have repercussions and advantages , so before choosing any of them to apply to the dog, it is necessary to consult with a veterinarian and ask for guidance towards the most favorable decision for the canine. and for his master. Choosing one of the two lightly can be counterproductive for the dog, irreversibly affecting its life. Learn more about the canine world:
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